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The Telling by Ursula Le Guin
This is a bit preachy, rather analogy-laden. At the beginning of the book, Terra has been taken over by Unists (these could be fundamentalist Christians or Muslims) and there are Pales (ghettos) where unbelievers live. Our protagonist, Sutty, is from Calcutta, and lived in a Vancouver Pale. She becomes an Ekumen Observer on a planet called Aka. Aka doesn't allow Ekumen staff outside the main city and carefully controls what they see, which is an authoritarian police state that worships a God of Reason. Sutty gets a break and is allowed to go out to a rural area, followed by a Akan Monitor, and finds out about the original beliefs of the planet. As she learns more, she becomes more confused. What's the solution?